Science & Tech –
AMD launches 2nd generation CPUs for high-performance computing

AMD, one of the leading computer processors manufacturers in the world, recently announced the launching of its new 2nd Generation AMD EPYC family of processors that deliver performance leadership across a broad number of enterprise, cloud and high-performance computing (HPC) workloads.

Lisa Su, AMD president and CEO, said during the launching event on August 7, 2019 in San Francisco, California, USA, AMD is setting a new standard for the modern datacenter with the launch of the company’s 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors.

The new EPYC processors are designed to deliver record-setting performance and significantly lower total cost of ownership across a broad set of workloads, Su said.

“Adoption of our new leadership server processors is accelerating with multiple new enterprise, cloud and HPC customers choosing EPYC processors to meet their most demanding server computing needs,” Su Said.

The new 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors feature up to 64 “Zen 2” cores in 7nm process technology to deliver record-setting performance while helping reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) by up to 50% across numerous workloads, according to AMD.

The new 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors are specifically designed for modern datacenter workloads, providing customers an ideal combination of features to help unlock performance and redefine economics in virtualization, cloud, HPC and enterprise applications.

As the new AMD processors were launched to the global market, Google and Twitter announced new 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processor deployments and HPE and Lenovo announced the immediate availability of new platforms.

Google announced it has deployed 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors in its internal infrastructure production datacenter environment and in late 2019 will support new general-purpose machines powered by 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors on Google Cloud Compute Engine as well.

“AMD 2nd Gen EPYC processors will help us continue to do what we do best in our datacenters: innovate,” said Bart Sano, Google vice president of Engineering.

“Its scalable compute, memory and I/O performance will expand our ability to drive innovation forward in our infrastructure and will give Google Cloud customers the flexibility to choose the best VM for their workloads,” Sano said.

Twitter announced it will deploy 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors across its datacenter infrastructure later this year, reducing TCO by 25%.

“Twitter is committed to reducing our environmental impact of our datacenters by finding innovative ways to increase efficiency. The 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processor provides us the sweet spot of performance and energy consumption that we need to honor that commitment, while supporting the high traffic volume on our platform,” Jennifer Fraser, senior director of Engineering at Twitter.

“Using the AMD EPYC 7702 processor we can scale out our compute clusters with more cores in less space using less power, which translates to a 25% lower TCO for Twitter,” Fraser said.

Microsoft announced the preview of new Azure virtual machines for general purpose applications, as well as limited previews of cloud-based remote desktops and HPC workloads based on 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors today;

HPE announced continued support of the AMD EPYC processor family with plans to triple their AMD-based portfolio with a broad range of 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processor-based systems, including the HPE ProLiant DL385 and HPE ProLiant DL325 servers;

Cray announced The Air Force Weather Agency will be using a Cray Shasta system with 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors to provide comprehensive terrestrial and space weather information to the U.S. Air Force and Army;

Lenovo announced new solutions that are specifically built to take advantage of the full range of enhanced capabilities found in the 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors. Available today, the ThinkSystem SR655 and SR635 are ideal solutions for use cases such as video infrastructure, virtualization, software-defined storage and more, with exceptional energy efficiency;

Dell announced the upcoming availability of newly designed servers optimized for 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors;

VMware and AMD announced a close collaboration to deliver support for new security and other features of the high-performance 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors within VMware vSphere.

“VMware and AMD’s ongoing engineering collaboration is focused on delivering optimal application performance and security for our mutual customers,” said Krish Prasad, senior vice president and general manager, Cloud Platform Business Unit, VMware.

This link provides more information about the new 2nd Gen AMD EPYC processors:

PH government launches ‘911 TESDA’ employment app

The Philippine government on July 30, 2019 officially launched “911 TESDA”, an online application providing the graduates of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) a platform to look for job requirements.

The “911 TESDA,” initially available as web-based application, was created not just to help TESDA graduates, but also to make it more convenient for the public, especially those who need services, to find workers.

Eight digital online services providers (DOSPs) have recently signed a partnership with TESDA for the app.

TESDA graduates from 2017 may apply to be accredited by the DOSPs. The two will have an agreement on how things would work.

DOSPs would screen the workers they would send to those who would be needing services.

The agency initially targeted to launch the app by July 18, and make this available initially in Metro Manila.

As of July 30, 2019, the public could only access “911 TESDA” via web

The services are initially available for those in Metro Manila, Bulacan, Nueva Ecija, Batangas, Cavite, Laguna and Rizal.

“911 TESDA” is currently limited to services including housekeeper, kitchen staff, aircon cleaner, laundry, lighting installation or repair, and accounting clerk.

TESDA-NCR director Conrado Bares earlier told the Philippine News Agency (PNA) that when someone needs a service, the partner DOSP would look for the registered worker nearest the vicinity.

“This would give the TESDA graduates the option to work with the DOSP either full-time or part-time, depending on their availability,” he added.

Bares also bared that the DOSPs said 42,000 people in NCR are needing the services of certified TESDA graduates.

Among the in-demand services are massage, carpentry, housekeeping, programming and call center, Bares said.

TESDA’s mandate, Bares said, is not just to give education or training, but also help its graduates find employment or livelihood opportunities.

TESDA’s tagline, “Abot Lahat” targets that more people, especially in the regions, would benefit from TESDA scholarships and services. (PNA)

DICT urged to prioritize free Wi-Fi program in PH

Two senators on July 2, 2019, urged newly-appointed Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) Secretary Gregorio Honasan to fast-track the setting up of free internet in the country’s state universities and colleges (SUCs).

Senator Sonny Angara said he is confident that Honasan will carry out the free Wi-Fi program with a “greater sense of urgency” as he takes the helm of the DICT.

Angara noted that the program has been plagued with delays, citing the DICT data that only 17 out of the country’s 112 SUCs have been installed free Wi-Fi hotspots as of December 2018.

“That’s a low 15 percent accomplishment rate. These institutions of higher learning are supposed to be priority areas in the roll-out plan but it appears that they have become last-mile targets,” Angara said.

Angara said funding for the implementation of the program should not be a problem because Congress has been providing appropriations for the endeavor annually.

The free public Wi-Fi project has a total budget of PHP1.7 billion for 2018, of which PHP326 million is for the installation of hotspots in SUCs, while the balance of PHP1.36 billion is for other public areas such as town halls, airports, and other transportation terminals.

Senate President Pro Tempore Ralph Recto also highlighted the delay in the rollout of the free public Wi-Fi hotspots.

Recto noted that as of June 2019, only 2,677 sites have been made operational, out of the cumulative target of 34,236 sites by the end of the year.

“If this pace will not accelerate, the target of installing 100,349 sites by 2026 will be impossible to meet. The free Wi-Fi hotspots project should not crawl like the present speed of internet in the country,” Recto said.

“I am however optimistic that Secretary Greg will fix the bugs of this program and implement a catch-up plan that will cover other areas of concern as well,” he added.

Recto also expressed confidence that Honasan would be time-on-target in meeting the timetable for the completion of needed reforms in the IT sector.

Honasan, a former senator, took his oath as DICT chief before President Rodrigo R. Duterte on Monday.

Honasan bared that he has accepted Duterte’s offer to name him DICT chief last November 2018.

He replaced DICT acting Secretary Eliseo Rio Jr. (Filane Mikee Cervantes, PNA)

Positive Activism: ASEAN Data Science Explorers 2019 empowers youth to harness data analytics

The ASEAN Foundation’s Data Science Explorers Programme and Germany-based European multinational software corporation SAP invite students across South East Asia region to join in the 3rd annual data analytics competition to harness the power of data and deliver sound recommendations in addressing developmental issues.

Now on its third year, the ASEAN Foundation and SAP launched on March 26, 2019 in Taguig City, Philippines, the call for applications for the ASEAN Data Science Explorers (ASEANDSE) 2019, targeted at tertiary students across all 10 ASEAN member states to harness the power of data to help solving the most pressing developmental issues in the region.

The ASEANDSE is a flagship programme rising from the collaboration between the ASEAN Foundation and SAP that aims to galvanise youth activism among students in ASEAN by increasing their information and communication technology competencies and transforming them into innovators who are capable of delivering data-driven recommendations and solutions that help contribute to the achievement of ASEAN Community’s goals.

The initiative integrates 2 key activities, which are a series of enablement sessions and a data analytics competition, to achieve its objective.

Since its introduction in 2017, the ASEANDSE has empowered over 5,000 youths from 287 higher education institutions in the region and has been recognised by 10 ASEAN leaders, Senior Officials Meeting on Youth (SOMY), and Senior Officials Meeting on Education (SOMED) for its contribution to youth development.

The competition will be carried out from February to October 2019, kickstarting with informative enablement sessions organised for students and lecturers in local institutions of higher learning across all 10 ASEAN member states to improve their data analytics’ skills and knowledge.

The enablement sessions will then be followed with a national and regional data analytics competition where successful youth applicants will converge to present data-driven proposals which highlight issues in ASEAN across 6 United Nation Sustainable Development Goals, namely (3) good health and well-being, (4) quality education, (5) gender equality, (8) decent work and economic growth, (9) industry, innovation and infrastructure and (11) sustainable cities and communities utilizing SAP’s Analytics Cloud software.

In order to take part in the competition, students are required to form teams of two to register for the competition and submit their proposals. One participating team from each member state will stand a chance to be crowned as the national finalist before advancing to compete in the regional finals.

At the highest honor of the regional finals, the 10 national finalists will be given the opportunity to present their winning ideas to a panel of judges which consists of distinguished representatives from the ASEAN Foundation, SAP and various government officials and selected NGO organisations.

Coinciding with Thailand’s ASEAN Chairmanship in 2019, this year’s regional finals will be held in Bangkok on 16 October 2019. The call for applications for the ASEANDSE 2019 will close on 10 May 2019.

More information about the ASEAN Data Science Explorers can be accessed at or email send to

France gives PH grant for study on cable car system

The government of France has provided financial aid for a feasibility study on the implementation of the first urban cable car project in the Philippines, the Department of Transportation (DOTr) said Wednesday.

In a statement, the department said the initiative was formalized through a launch held at its office in Clark, Pampanga, attended by Transportation Secretary Arthur Tugade, French Ambassador Nicolas Galey, transportation officials and representatives of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) and Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA).

“The construction of an urban cable car system in Manila is certainly an exciting prospect, and the French government is very happy to be able to support the Philippine government in getting the most efficient way to include this mode of transportation in Metro Manila’s transport network,” Galey said.

The DOTr said France has provided a grant amounting to 450,000 euros or PHP27 million for a 10-month study on the creation of an urban cable car system in Metro Manila, which will be conducted by French consulting firms MDP Consulting & Systra, both with international expertise in transport infrastructure and cable car systems.

Tugade, meanwhile, said a cable car system is part of a “basket of solutions” to address the traffic situation in the country.

“We are gathered here to address the issue of transportation and traffic that is happening in the country today. Admittedly, not one system can solve the situation of transportation and traffic in the Philippines. Not a cable system alone can solve the problems; it has got to be a basket of solutions, procedures, and systems, and one of those baskets is certainly cable,” Tugade said.

The feasibility will consist of three phases: identification of potential cable car corridor; comparison of the corridors and selection of the best cable car alignment; and the full feasibility study, which will determine if the project is technically, financially, and economically feasible.

Tugade is pushing for the consideration of La Union-Baguio and Caticlan-Boracay as prospective routes for the cable car system to promote tourism in those areas.

The implementation of the cable car project will depend on the results of the study.

Before assuming office in June 2016, Tugade proposed that a cable car system be set up as one of the measures to ease traffic congestion in Metro Manila.

He said the Philippines should consider the experience of Bolivia that uses cable cars to help address the country’s traffic situation.

DICT taps Kaspersky to boost government cybersecurity program

The Philippines’ Department of Information and Communications Technology (DICT) and global cybersecurity company Kaspersky Lab recently signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) to strengthen their existing mutual commitment to address the information security challenges among local public sector agencies in support of the national cybersecurity framework of the country.

The agreement, which coincided with the first Philippine International Cybersecurity Conference in Davao City last week, aims to further enhance capacity development and institution building on cybersecurity within the government sector as it seeks to ensure public safety and security in the 21st century.

“Tackling cybersecurity, being borderless in nature, is by no means a solo act. We are glad to take our current collaboration with the DICT to the next level and we’re looking forward to seeing the results of this agreement benefit the Filipinos,” said Stephan Neumeier, Managing Director at Kaspersky Lab Asia Pacific.

“Our experience at Kaspersky Lab alone shows how a collective approach in battling cybercrime is very effective at demystifying the most complex of cyberthreats and keeping ahead of the cyber criminals. With our cybersecurity expertise, we hope to support the Philippines the best way we can as we do with other governments around the world,” Neumeier said.

“The creation of the National Cybersecurity Plan (NCSP) 2020 proved that the Philippine government, through the DICT, has indeed placed cybersecurity among its top national priorities,” said Yeo Siang Tiong, General Manager for Southeast Asia at Kaspersky Lab.

“With the country’s strong and steady economic growth combined with its highly active online citizens, the steps being taken by the government come at a time when Filipinos need heightened cybersecurity measures the most,” Siang said.

In this year’s Q2 cyberthreat report of Kaspersky Lab, the Philippines placed as the ninth most attacked country worldwide in terms of online threats.

About 10.6 million web infections online were recorded in this period in the Philippines, where 39% of attacks were against individual Internet users and 11% were against businesses.

In photo: DICT & Kaspersky Lab inks MoU. Present at the signing were (from left to right) Allan S. Cabanlong, Assistant Secetary, DICT; Eliseo M. Rio Jr., Acting Secretary, DICT; Stephan Neumeier, Managing Director, Kaspersky Lab APAC; and Yeo Siang Tiong, General Manager, Kaspersky Lab Southeast Asia.

PH makes headway in Science and Tech

As the Philippines is scheduled to launch its second microsatellite called “Diwata-2,” the country is making headway in science and technology (S&T), Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Secretary Fortunato dela Peña said.

“Diwata-2,” which will be used to gather information about disasters, among others, will be launched in
at Tanegashima Space Center in Kagoshima, Japan .

Along with “Diwata-2” achievement, Sec. dela Peña also enumerated other recent vital developments in the country’s Science and Technology sector.

“Our Balik Scientist Act is now in effect. I signed the IRR (implementing rules and regulations) last Oct. 4, and it took effect on Oct. 21,” dela Peña said.

President Rodrigo Duterte signed the Balik Scientist Act into law last June. The law seeks to provide incentives to Balik Scientists, or S&T experts residing abroad and who are contracted to return to the Philippines to work and use their expertise in the country.

Dela Peña said institutionalizing the Balik Scientist Program would encourage more Balik Scientists, since the new law allows them to process their visa and immigration requirements faster.

Host institutions for Balik Scientists could be local or private institutions seeking technical assistance.

Dela Peña said some host universities are grateful for the huge help of the Balik Scientists, especially in the fields of robotics, pharmaceuticals, and drug development.

“The UST Dean of Pharmacy, for instance, told me that their initial engagement with a Balik Scientist significantly improved their R&D (research and development) program and plans. The president of Southern Leyte State University said likewise,” dela Peña told the PNA.

But the DOST chief also pointed out that some host universities are having difficulty bringing in a Balik Scientist. He cited, for instance, the University of Mindanao in North Cotabato, where there were reported incidents of war between soldiers and the leftist group New People’s Army.

Dela Peña is eyeing to get 60 Balik Scientists per year after the Balik Scientists Program has become a law.

Another S&T development that he mentioned was the recently concluded ASEAN Science Ministers’ meeting that he chaired in Cebu City.

Dela Pena said among the accomplishments of the ASEAN meeting was that the ministers have agreed to the creation of new S&T centers and networks in the region.

An ASEAN Center for Microbial Utilization will be established in Thailand, he said, adding that the ASEAN Network for Diagnostic Initiatives will be led by the Philippines.

The Philippines and other member states have also agreed to invest more in science, technology, and innovation, he added.

“(It was also during the ministers’ meeting) that a Filipina was given the US ASEAN Award for Outstanding Woman Scientist,” he cited.

Dela Peña was referring to Dr. Gay Jane Perez, who has been extensively involved in DOST’s space technology development program.

The DOST chief said Perez bested 45 other nominees from the region. (Ma. Cristina Arayata/PNA)

DFA to Pinoys abroad: Stop posting unverified info on social media

The Philippines’ Department of Foreign Affairs (DFA) is appealing to Filipinos abroad to avoid posting unverified information on social media.

The DFA issued the appeal after a social media post involving a Filipina household service worker in Bahrain, who was supposedly subjected to genital mutilation by her employer, went viral but later turned out to be untrue.

“While we appreciate the concern extended by our kababayan abroad about this particular case, we should also be careful about posting something of this kind on social media without first checking its veracity,” Foreign Affairs Undersecretary for Migrant Workers Affairs Sarah Lou Y. Arriola said.

“We have to protect the interests of our kababayan victim and at the same time make sure we do not unnecessarily strain our relations with the host state,” Undersecretary Arriola said as she lamented the posting on social media of a video showing the visibly distraught Filipina.

“Every complaint is taken seriously and is investigated. It does not need to go viral in social media,” the Undersecretary said in cautioning Filipinos abroad against passing on through social media unverified information of very sensitive nature, particularly in the Middle East where there are very strict defamation laws.

Ambassador to Manama Alfonso A. Ver said the woman was already in the Philippines when the post went viral but Foreign Affairs Secretary Alan Peter S. Cayetano had her located and brought immediately to the hospital for medical examination.

“Doctors said that upon examination, the victim had no indications whatsoever of genital mutilation,” Ambassador Ver said.

However, Ambassador Ver said the medical examination on the victim revealed signs of physical abuse and post traumatic stress disorder.

Ambassador Ver said the DFA will provide for the continuous medical care of the victim, who remains confined at the hospital. The DFA Office of Migrant Workers Affairs will also be providing her family with financial assistance.

The envoy said the Embassy has also learned that the victim was underpaid by her employer. Instead of BD150.00, the victim was only being paid BD90.00 monthly, according to the envoy.

Ambassador Ver said the Embassy has already contacted officials of the Labor Market Regulatory Authority, who promised to cooperate in the investigation.

He also gave assurances that the Embassy will undertake the necessary courses of action to address the other concerns of the victim.

Global mobile group to support disaster response cooperation between Smart, Nokia, PH Red Cross

Smart Communications and Nokia Philippines announced they have received funding from the Global System for Mobile Communications Association (GSMA), the organization representing mobile operators globally, for a disaster response drone system.

The Nokia Saving Lives drone project, which will operate on Smart’s frequencies during times of emergency, has been selected as a grantee by the GSMA Disaster Response Innovation Fund.

The GSMA is an originally-European trade body that represents the interests of mobile network operators worldwide. Approximately 800 mobile operators are full GSMA members and a further 300 companies in the broader mobile ecosystem are associate members.

The Nokia Saving Lives program seeks to provide communications technology and technical assistance to emergency response teams. In the Philippines, Smart will provide high-speed connectivity for a drone-based system to help boost the disaster response efforts of the Philippine Red Cross.

The system consists of drones, a portable data center, a mobile broadband network, and applications like video streaming, gas sensing, mapping, and analytics, which can help Red Cross responders assess current status of lifelines and analyze immediate needs and gaps. This will enable Red Cross to provide emergency assistance to communities in more timely, effective and efficient ways.

Using Smart’s high-speed LTE connectivity and the portable Nokia Ultra Compact Network, the system can also create a secure communication between drones, other equipment, and rescue team members.

The drone can be equipped with different types of cameras, sensors and speakers, and can also be used to carry first aid kits. The portable data center, meanwhile, is a computing and storage unit that can be used for immediate data analysis.

The initiative was presented to the delegates of the GSMA Humanitarian Connectivity Charter (HCC) Regional Workshop for Asia-Pacific during a visit to the Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation emergency operations center. Representatives from the GSMA and other telecommunications providers all over Asia attended the HCC meeting, held recently in Angeles, Pampanga.

“We are proud to present this collaboration with our colleagues here in Asia and the rest of the world,” said PLDT and Smart public affairs head Ramon R. Isberto. “Disaster preparedness is one of our priority advocacies. At Smart, we provide continuous network service, as well as multi-platform technology and training, as we work with the government and other partners. We believe our communications support for the drones will help enhance disaster response and, ultimately, save lives.”

“The GSMA Disaster Response Innovation Fund is proud to be supporting projects that use mobile technology to assist and empower individuals or communities who are building their resilience to natural disasters, or who are affected by humanitarian emergencies,” said Kyla Reid, head of digital identity and mobile for humanitarian innovation at the GSMA. “This project from Nokia and Smart Communications is an excellent example of collaboration and highlights the positive role the private sector can play in strengthening response in the face of disaster.”

Christina Cabrera, head of Nokia Technology Center Philippines, said: “Nokia creates the technology to connect the world. The collaboration between Smart, Nokia Technology Center Philippines and the Philippine Red Cross brings the innovative Nokia Saving Lives solution for emergency situations into use—right here in the Philippines. To do this we build on the strength of Nokia’s engineering capabilities worldwide and especially on the expertise and motivation of our engineers in the Nokia Technology Center Philippines.”

Smart is one of the three founding signatories of the GSMA Human Connectivity Charter. The HCC aims to provide increased access to communication and information for those affected by calamities, helping reduce loss of lives and contribute to humanitarian response. It supports efforts by network operators and industry partners to formalize their commitments to enhance their capacity to mitigate, prepare for, and respond to disasters, using mobile technology.

Since its launch in 2015, HCC has grown to include over 147 mobile operator members and six humanitarian partners in more than 106 countries.

Smart’s disaster preparedness programs have been cited in the GSMA HCC annual reports. These programs include Smart’s Emergency Cell Broadcast System (ECBS), which sends out location- and hazard-specific alerts; its ICT Bayanihan series of regional summits to institutionalize emergency telecommunications teams; and the Batingaw disaster management app, which has been replicated in the Horn of Africa.

Smart’s support to the Red Cross and commitment to HCC are part of the company’s #SafePH advocacy, which aims to help build resilient communities and reduce disaster-related casualties through technology.

Representatives of Smart, Nokia, and the Philippine Red Cross sign an agreement for the operation of the Nokia Saving Lives drone system in the Philippines.

Philippines to launch first CubeSat on June 29

The country’s first cube satellite (CubeSat), Maya-1, will be transported to the International Space Station on June 29, 2018 through the SpaceX Falcon-9 CRS 15.

The rocket launch will be in Cape Canaveral, Florida at 5:41 p.m. (PHT). Maya-1 will then be released in orbit in August.

One of the missions of the 1-unit (1U) CubeSat is the Store-and-Forward (S&F) System. It will collect data from ground sensor terminals within its footprint, save it, and forward the data to any member ground station.

The 10 cubic centimeter CubeSat also contains an Automatic Packet Radio Service Digipeater, which can communicate with ham radios. Maya-1 will also carry two cameras — a wide-angle and a narrow-angle lens — to capture images and minimum resolution videos for research purposes.

Inside Maya-1 is a low-cost Global Positioning System (GPS) commercial off-the-shelf chip, as well as a magnetometer — a device used to measure the magnetic field in space. Maya-1 can also log data corruption incidents due to space radiation through the Single Event Latch-Up mission.

Maya-1 is one of the three CubeSats under the 2nd Joint Global Multi-Nation Birds Project or BIRDS-2 Project of the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) in Japan.

Bhutan and Malaysia will also launch their cubesats, BHUTAN-1 and UiTMSAT-1, on June 29.

Two Filipino graduate students under the PHL-Microsat program developed Maya-1 in Japan: Joven Javier is taking his master’s degree while Adrian Salces is taking his doctoral degree, both in Kyutech.

The CubeSat was handed to the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) on May 15.

The development of the CubeSat is under the Development of the Philippines’ Scientific Earth Observation Microsatellite (PHL-Microsat, a research program jointly implemented by the University of the Philippines-Diliman (UPD) and the Advanced Science and Technology Institute of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST-ASTI) in partnership with the Kyushu Institute of Technology (Kyutech) in Japan.

The PHL-Microsat also produced Diwata-1, the country’s first microsatellite released into orbit on April 27, 2016.